The Microsoft Press Store by Pearson. For practice file download instructions, see the introduction. Diagrams are graphics that convey information. Business documents often include diagrams to clarify concepts, describe processes, and show hierarchical relationships.
Word includes a powerful diagramming feature called SmartArt that you can use to create diagrams directly in your documents. By using these dynamic diagram templates, you can produce eye-catching and interesting visual representations of information. SmartArt graphics can illustrate many different types of concepts. Although they consist of collections of shapes, SmartArt graphics are merely visual containers for information stored as bulleted lists. You can also incorporate pictures and other images to create truly spectacular, yet divinely professional, diagrams.
This chapter guides you through procedures related to creating diagrams, modifying diagrams, and creating picture diagrams. Sometimes the concepts you want to convey to an audience are best presented in diagrams. You can easily create a dynamic, appealing diagram by using SmartArt graphics, which visually express information in predefined sets of shapes. You can use SmartArt graphics to easily create sophisticated diagrams that illustrate the following concepts:.
Exploded Product Diagrams
The layout of content in a SmartArt diagram is controlled by a behind-the-scenes bulleted list. When creating a SmartArt diagram in Word, you choose a layout first, and then populate the associated list in a window called the Text pane. The actual colors of the SmartArt diagram are based on the color scheme of the document, and you can choose from several different color patterns. The categories in the left pane of the dialog box are not mutually exclusive, so some diagrams appear in more than one category.
Click to view larger image. After you create a SmartArt diagram, you can change its content, layout, and colors. Clicking a layout in the Choose A SmartArt Graphic dialog box displays a color mockup of the diagram and information about any restrictions on the number of entries or list levels that the layout supports.
You can find the layout information in the Text pane after you create the diagram.
Sometimes the Text pane displays the layout name and description at the bottom; other times only the layout name is displayed. When this is the case, simply point to the layout name to display the layout description in a ScreenTip. The detailed description of the selected SmartArt diagram can help you choose the right diagram for your needs. After you choose a layout, Word inserts the basic diagram into the document and displays the Text pane containing placeholder information.
You can enter more or less information than is required by the original diagram. When you enter text in either the Text pane or the selected shape, that text also appears in the other location. You can insert and modify text either directly in the diagram shapes or in the associated Text pane. The Text pane might display only a single-level bulleted list, or a multiple-level list if the diagram layout supports multiple levels. You can expand the diagram either by adding more list items or by adding more shapes.
Some diagram layouts support a specific number of entries and others can be expanded significantly. The number of items displayed by a diagram can be expanded or reduced to convey the precise meaning you want to convey.
In layouts that support additional entries, the diagram shapes change to accommodate the content. Within a diagram, the shape size and font size always stay consistent. If a text entry is too long to fit a shape, the text size changes in all the shapes.Over the years, I've heard many explanations for why some technicians choose not to work on European vehicles. For some, it's based on their desire to work only on vehicles built within our borders.
For others, the choice may be based on the belief that European cars are just too "foreign" and their systems too unusual or exotic to easily understand. In today's automotive economy, it has become increasingly difficult to hold onto these attitudes.
Many cars sold in this country by European and Asian manufacturers are actually assembled right here in the U. This blurs the conventional definition of an imported vehicle. At the same time, many "American" cars are actually assembled outside our borders, further confusing the accepted definition of a domestic car. Auto manufacturing is truly a global enterprise, with all of the major manufacturers conducting business in several countries simultaneously.
Even if we ignore the differences of language and culture, isn't it still a difficult problem for a European manufacturer to build vehicles in a different country like the U. To oversimplify the challenges involved, how do you get an American assembly line to crank out parts for a European car?
The answer is standards. Standards have been an integral part of the automotive world since the earliest days of the automotive assembly line. Standardization of parts allowed automakers to transform their businesses from a one-at-a-time proposition to a many-at-a-time operation. In this country, the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE is responsible for maintaining order by establishing many of the standards that apply to automobile manufacturing. When you pick a bolt for a domestic vehicle out of the bolt bin, chances are the standards and specifications concerning its thread pitch and hardness were originally defined by SAE.
Thanks to standardization, that bolt should thread into any nut made anywhere in the world, as long as it conforms to the same set of standards.
In Europe, the most widely recognized organization responsible for establishing and publishing automotive standards is called Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.
Standards established by this organization are often referred to as DIN standards. DIN standards have been established for a multitude of things, including many outside the automotive world, but we'll limit the focus of this article to the DIN standards for automotive wiring. Why wiring? Because that's the one thing I've heard the most techs complain about when it comes to working on European vehicles. For some, it's the layout of the electrical components throughout the vehicle. For others, it's understanding the wiring diagrams that map out the position and operation of all those systems and components.It can be either an auto repair manual or a maintenance manual, a car book, an auto operation book or an operation manual, or a parts catalog of the car you are interested in, as well as a training manual, an encyclopedia or an atlas of highways.
For example: toyota corolla repair manual, hilux fault codes, volvo xc60, 1jz engine manual, alfa romeo EWD. You can find, select and download the auto-manual you are interested in using the catalog of automotive repair manualssearch the site by entering an appropriate query, or by searching for headings, brands and models of cars. The manuals on car repairs, presented on our website, includes almost a full collection of automotive subjects.
Here you can find books for cars of any make and model. The car repair manual is sorted in a convenient order, which makes it easy to find the book you are looking for. We tried to make the work with these documents as convenient and easy as possible. The number of manuals will be constantly expanded due to new revenues. We have considered various models and brands of cars, different years of production and modifications, with petrol or diesel engines, with automatic or manual transmission.
If you have any questions, please contact with us. Alfa Romeo. Aston Martin.
Lookup Parts by Diagram
Necessary Always Enabled.Every day in every auto repair forum I see people ask for a car wiring diagram. Now I can choose the car wiring diagrams based on which system I want to work on. Choose year, make, model. Then the Wiring Diagrams sub category. There are 27 different system categories to choose from. Within each system category, there are multiple sub-categories. Oh wait, look at all these sub categories! Is it powered by gasoline or compressed natural gas.
Does it have an immobilizer system anti-theft or did it ship without an immobilizer system? Want to find a car wiring diagram for a sensor? Look at all these choices. Got that? Made your choice? So you see, there are over 17 pages of car wiring diagrams just dealing with engine performance sensors for this one year, make, model. Ask for the wiring diagram for a MAF sensor on a Toyota Camry, without any other information and there is NO way anybody can help you.
Is it powered by gasoline or compressed natural gas? Based on all the different wiring diagrams shown here, 2. You may find a diagram, but is it the right one?
Call your local library and ask if they offer online access to auto repair manuals. That means you should bring money with you to print out the diagrams on their printers. Which is better?Schematics maker lets you create streamlined schematic diagrams, circuits, and wiring diagrams with a comprehensive list of electrical symbols.
It's cloud-collaborative and compatible with Mac, Windows and Linux. Edraw schematics maker focuses on providing the best service for drawing schematics and circuit diagrams.
It's a fantastic program with powerful drawing capabilities, rich built-in symbols and no learning curve. It allows users to build precise and good-looking electrical circuits with drag-and-drop shapes and easily formatted connectors. More than of industry-standard electrical symbols are included in the program and categorized into different libraries.
Choose a library title to get the symbols you need. They are industry-standard vector symbols that can be stretched or modified without quality loss.
A good-looking schematic diagram can be finished through simple steps of drag-and-drop creation and a wide range of formatting options. Edraw supports to embed images, URLs, and text in schematic drawings. Edraw schematics maker comes with number of free examples that can be customized within a few clicks, so you can get started quickly. You can access these professionally designed examples either from the software or from our website. Start from built-in schematic drawing examples makes you instantly productive.
Schematics Maker - Create Schematic Diagrams Easily Schematics maker lets you create streamlined schematic diagrams, circuits, and wiring diagrams with a comprehensive list of electrical symbols.
Available for Mac and Linux. Available for Windows and Linux. Available for Windows and Mac. Easy-to-Use and Powerful Schematics Maker Edraw schematics maker focuses on providing the best service for drawing schematics and circuit diagrams. Includes all Common Electrical Symbols More than of industry-standard electrical symbols are included in the program and categorized into different libraries.I was not aware of the very large developer community around Visio either.
The resulting sandbox I experimented with, as well as VBA implementation notes in excruciating details, mostly as a memo to myself are provided below.
Fortunately, all versions of Visio provide a basic feature for associating user data to shapes. Data of various types integer, float, string, … can be created from there. In fact, these user-created data are only a small subset of the data associated to a shape: each shape also has by default a lot of built-in data that Visio uses to store information about the shape geometry, content, format, ….
This whole set of data is available in the Shapesheetaccessible from the Developer tab of the UI you may need to customize the Ribbon to make this Developer tab visible :. The most convenient way I found was to use visio Containers to group shapes.
Containers are shapes too, so they can have associated data. The remaining part was then to find a way to compute container data, from the individual data of the shapes it contains. There are several ways to manipulate data programmatically in Visio:. Visio has two important concepts:. Another possible alternative would be to use custom calloutsalso available in visio standard, and allowing to display shape data values. The Visio example file and VBA classes source code are available here for reference.
The relevant entities that we manipulate for this usecase are shown below representing a very limited subset of the full Visio object model :. When manipulating shapes programmatically, it is important to note that their are various shape types out there. In my case, I applied filtering here and there in the code to only care for:.
The complete list of Visio Shape types is available here. Also, among regular Shapes, some are Containers, they are the ones with a non-null ContainerProperties object. Available Visio Units are defined here. Note : Since Formula property is a string, sometime the syntax can get weird to actually use a string inside a formula. To avoid having to use confusing triple quotes, and easier way is to use CHR 34as in e. The internal Visio engine emits many different Events when manipulating a diagram.
Three steps are required: 1 Use the WithEvents keyword to declare an object which events we want to be notified of.As an introduction to ladder diagrams, consider the simple wiring diagram for an electrical circuit in Figure 1a. The diagram shows the circuit for switching on or off an electric motor. We can redraw this diagram in a different way, using two vertical lines to represent the input power rails and stringing the rest of the circuit between them.
Figure 1b shows the result. Both circuits have the switch in series with the motor and supplied with electrical power when the switch is closed. With such a diagram the power supply for the circuits is always shown as two vertical lines with the rest of the circuit as horizontal lines. The power lines, or rails as they are often termed, are like the vertical sides of a ladder with the horizontal circuit lines like the rungs of the ladder.
Circuit diagrams often show the relative physical location of the circuit components and how they are actually wired. With ladder diagrams no attempt is made to show the actual physical locations and the emphasis is on clearly showing how the control is exercised. Figure 2 see below shows an example of a ladder diagram for a circuit that is used to start and stop a motor using push buttons.
In the normal state, push button 1 is open and push button 2 closed. When button 1 is pressed, the motor circuit is completed and the motor starts. Also, the holding contacts wired in parallel with the motor close and remain closed as long as the motor is running. Thus when the push button 1 is released, the holding contacts maintain the circuit and hence the power to the motor. To stop the motor, button 2 is pressed. This disconnects the power to the motor and the holding contacts open.
Thus when push button 2 is released, there is still no power to the motor. A very commonly used method of programming PLCs is based on the use of ladder diagrams. Writing a program is then equivalent to drawing a switching circuit. The ladder diagram consists of two vertical lines representing the power rails. Circuits are connected as horizontal lines, i. The vertical lines of the diagram represent the power rails between which circuits are connected.
The power flow is taken to be from the left-hand vertical across a rung. The top rung is read from left to right. Then the second rung down is read from left to right and so on. When the PLC is in its run modeit goes through the entire ladder program to the end, the end rung of the program being clearly denoted, and then promptly resumes at the start.
This procedure of going through all the rungs of the program is termed a cycle. The end rung might be indicated by a block with the word END or RET for return, since the program promptly returns to its beginning. Each rung must start with an input or inputs and must end with at least one output. The term input is used for a control action, such as closing the contacts of a switch, used as an input to the PLC.
Master Automotive Wiring Diagrams and Electrical Symbols
The term output is used for a device connected to the output of a PLC, e. Electrical devices are shown in their normal condition. Thus a switch, which is normally open until some object closes it, is shown as open on the ladder diagram.
A switch that is normally closed is shown closed. A particular device can appear in more than one rung of a ladder. For example, we might have a relay that switches on one or more devices. The inputs and outputs are all identified by their addressesthe notation used depending on the PLC manufacturer. This is the address of the input or output in the memory of the PLC.